Fever is a common symptom in childhood, although it is not always due to a common infection. If infections, autoimmune and malignant diseases have been excluded, a congenital/hereditary periodic fever syndrome (HPF) may be present. HPF syndromes belong to the autoinflammatory diseases that are caused by defective regulation of the innate immune response. HPF syndromes are characterized by recurrent fever attacks accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction (elevated CRP and serum amyloid protein A), which particularly affects the skin, mucous membranes, serous membranes and joints and can lead to secondary amyloidosis in some diseases. Since clarifying the differential diagnostic is often difficult due to the similarity and variability of the symptoms, genetic diagnostics using NGS is one way of finding the cause.
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