SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND

AARS2, ABCA1, ABCC6, ABCC9, ABCG5, ABCG8, ACAD9, ACADVL, ACTA1, ACTA2, ACTC1, ACTN2, ACVR1, ACVR2B, ACVRL1, ADAMTS2, AFF4, AGK, AKAP9, AKT3, ALDH18A1, ALMS1, ALPK3, ANK2, ANKRD1, APOA5, APOB, APOE, ATP6V0A2, ATP6V1A, ATP6V1E1, B3GALT6, B4GALT7, BAG3, BGN, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BRAF, C1R, C1S, CACNA1C, CACNA2D1, CACNB2, CAD, CALM1, CALM2, CALM3, CASQ2, CAV1, CAV3, CBL, CBS, CFAP53, CCND2, CDK13, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, CHD4, CHD7, CHST14, CITED2, COA5, COA6, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, COL4A1, COL5A1, COL5A2, COX15, CPT2, CREBBP, CRELD1, CRYAB, CSRP3, CTNNA3, DES, DMD, DNAH11, DNAH5, DNAH6, DNAI1, DNAJC19, DOLK, DSC2, DSE, DSG2, DSP, DTNA, EFEMP2, EHMT1, EIF2AK4, ELAC2, ELN, EMD, ENG, EPHB4, EVC, EVC2, FBLN5, FBN1, FBN2, FHL1, FKBP14, FKTN, FLNA, FLNC, FOXC1, FOXE3, FOXH1, GAA, GANAB, GATA4, GATA5, GATA6, GATAD1, GBE1, GDF1, GJA5, GLA, GNAI2, GORAB, GPC3, GPD1L, GTPBP3, HADHA, HADHB, HAND1, HAND2, HCN4, HRAS, ILK, JAG1, JPH2, JUP, KARS1, KCNA5, KCNAB2, KCND3, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNE3, KCNH2, KCNJ2, KCNJ5, KCNJ8, KCNK3, KCNQ1, KDM5B, KMT2D, KRAS, LAMA4, LAMP2, LDB3, LDLR, LDLRAP1, LIPA, LMNA, LOX, LPL, LTBP4, LZTR1, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, MED13L, MFAP5, MIB1, MMP21, MRAS, MRPL3, MRPL44, MTO1, MYBPC3, MYH11, MYH6, MYH7, MYL2, MYL3, MYL4, MYLK, MYLK2, MYOZ2, MYPN, NDUFB11, NDUFV2, NEBL, NEXN, NF1, NF2, NIPBL, NKX2-5, NKX2-6, NME7, NODAL, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NPPA, NR2F2, NRAS, PCSK9, PDLIM3, PIK3CA, PIK3R2, PITX2, PKD1L1, PKP2, PLD1, PLN, PLOD1, POGZ, PPA2, PPP1CB, PRDM16, PRDM5, PRDM6, PRKAG2, PRKD1, PTPN11, PYCR1, RABGAP1L, RAF1, RASA1, RASA2, RBFOX2, RBM10, RBM20, RIT1, RRAS, RYR2, SALL4, SASH1, SCN10A, SCN1B, SCN2B, SCN3B, SCN4B, SCN5A, SCO2, SEMA3D, SEMA3E, SGCD, SHOC2, SKI, SLC22A5, SLC25A20, SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC2A10, SLC39A13, SMAD3, SMAD4, SMAD6, SMAD9, SMARCB1, SNTA1, SOS1, SOS2, SPRED1, STAMBP, TAB2, TAFAZZIN, TBX1, TBX20, TBX4, TBX5, TCAP, TECRL, TFAP2B, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TK2, TLL1, TMEM260, TMEM43, TMEM70, TNNC1, TNNI3, TNNT2, TPM1, TRDN, TRPM4, TSFM, TTN, TTR, VCL, ZEB2, ZFPM2, ZIC3, ZNF469

Category:

Scientific Background

The Ventrilia comprehensive panel includes all 292 genes tested in the disease panels.

 

Hereditary Cardiovascular Disorders (CVDs) consist of a wide range of disorders of the heart and its circulatory system. CVDs can be anything from cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias to rarer syndromes, such as Brugada and Noonan syndrome. CVDs have a combine prevalence of 3% worldwide and are responsible for approximately 31% of annual global deaths, making them the leading cause of mortality and major contributor to disability. They are also a major reason for premature death. Premature deaths are of interest since many are deemed to be preventable through reduced exposure to behavioral risk factors but more importantly, timely and effective treatment, even before symptoms start to appear. It is estimated that 33% of cardiovascular related deaths could be prevented if identified early.

 

Hereditary CVDs are difficult to diagnose and are usually identified after a severe and life changing cardiovascular episode. A big percentage of hereditary CVDs are diagnosed after a stroke or heart attack causing irreversible damage. Genetic testing has a vital role in preventing premature deaths as in can identify the genetic variant causing a disease and identify at risk family members.

 

Who is this test for?

Ventrilia can be used to identify genetic changes that lead to CVDs in

  • Symptomatic patients for accurate prognosis, therapy guidance and medical decision assistance and in
  • Presymptomatic patients who have already been clinically diagnosed with a CVD for early intervention therapies.
  • Ventrilia can also identify genetic changes in asymptomatic individuals that belong in high-risk groups and high-risk family members for early detections and key time interval monitoring.

 

References

  • Girolami F, Frisso G, Benelli M, Crotti L, Iascone M, Mango R, Mazzaccara C, Pilichou K, Arbustini E, Tomberli B, Limongelli G, Basso C, Olivotto I. Contemporary genetic testing in inherited cardiac disease: tools, ethical issues, and clinical applications. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2018 Jan;19(1):1-11. doi: 10.2459/JCM.0000000000000589. PMID: 29176389; PMCID: PMC5732648.
  • Girolami F, Frisso G, Benelli M, Crotti L, Iascone M, Mango R, Mazzaccara C, Pilichou K, Arbustini E, Tomberli B, Limongelli G, Basso C, Olivotto I. Contemporary genetic testing in inherited cardiac disease: tools, ethical issues, and clinical applications. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2018 Jan;19(1):1-11. doi: 10.2459/JCM.0000000000000589. PMID: 29176389; PMCID: PMC5732648.

 

How many genes are tested in this panel?

292 genes

 

What diseases are associated with the genes tested in this panel?

Cardiomyopathy:

Arrhytmogenic Cardiopathy (ACM)/ Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC)

Cardiomyopathy dilated

Cardiomyopathy hypertrophic (HCM)

Cardiomyopathy with onset in neonatal period infancy or childhood

Left Ventricular Non compaction Cardiomyopathy (NCCM/LVNC)

Cardiomyopathy restrictive

 

Arrhythmia:

Brugada-Syndrome (BrS)

Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT)

Long QT Syndrome (LQTS)

Atrial Fibrillation and Short QT Syndrome

 

Aortopathy:

Marfan syndrome

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease

 

CHD:

Isolated and syndromal congenital heart defects

Heterotaxy

Alagille Syndrome

Atrioventricular Septal defect

Atrial Septal defect

Ventricular Septal defect

Aortic Stenosis

Tetralogy of Fallot

 

Rasopathies:

Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous Syndrome

Costello Syndrome

Legius Syndrome

Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Noonan Syndrome

Noonan with multiple lentigines

Noonan-syndrome like disorder with loose anagen hair

 

Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)

 

Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

GENES

AARS2, ABCA1, ABCC6, ABCC9, ABCG5, ABCG8, ACAD9, ACADVL, ACTA1, ACTA2, ACTC1, ACTN2, ACVR1, ACVR2B, ACVRL1, ADAMTS2, AFF4, AGK, AKAP9, AKT3, ALDH18A1, ALMS1, ALPK3, ANK2, ANKRD1, APOA5, APOB, APOE, ATP6V0A2, ATP6V1A, ATP6V1E1, B3GALT6, B4GALT7, BAG3, BGN, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BRAF, C1R, C1S, CACNA1C, CACNA2D1, CACNB2, CAD, CALM1, CALM2, CALM3, CASQ2, CAV1, CAV3, CBL, CBS, CFAP53, CCND2, CDK13, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, CHD4, CHD7, CHST14, CITED2, COA5, COA6, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, COL4A1, COL5A1, COL5A2, COX15, CPT2, CREBBP, CRELD1, CRYAB, CSRP3, CTNNA3, DES, DMD, DNAH11, DNAH5, DNAH6, DNAI1, DNAJC19, DOLK, DSC2, DSE, DSG2, DSP, DTNA, EFEMP2, EHMT1, EIF2AK4, ELAC2, ELN, EMD, ENG, EPHB4, EVC, EVC2, FBLN5, FBN1, FBN2, FHL1, FKBP14, FKTN, FLNA, FLNC, FOXC1, FOXE3, FOXH1, GAA, GANAB, GATA4, GATA5, GATA6, GATAD1, GBE1, GDF1, GJA5, GLA, GNAI2, GORAB, GPC3, GPD1L, GTPBP3, HADHA, HADHB, HAND1, HAND2, HCN4, HRAS, ILK, JAG1, JPH2, JUP, KARS1, KCNA5, KCNAB2, KCND3, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNE3, KCNH2, KCNJ2, KCNJ5, KCNJ8, KCNK3, KCNQ1, KDM5B, KMT2D, KRAS, LAMA4, LAMP2, LDB3, LDLR, LDLRAP1, LIPA, LMNA, LOX, LPL, LTBP4, LZTR1, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, MED13L, MFAP5, MIB1, MMP21, MRAS, MRPL3, MRPL44, MTO1, MYBPC3, MYH11, MYH6, MYH7, MYL2, MYL3, MYL4, MYLK, MYLK2, MYOZ2, MYPN, NDUFB11, NDUFV2, NEBL, NEXN, NF1, NF2, NIPBL, NKX2-5, NKX2-6, NME7, NODAL, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NPPA, NR2F2, NRAS, PCSK9, PDLIM3, PIK3CA, PIK3R2, PITX2, PKD1L1, PKP2, PLD1, PLN, PLOD1, POGZ, PPA2, PPP1CB, PRDM16, PRDM5, PRDM6, PRKAG2, PRKD1, PTPN11, PYCR1, RABGAP1L, RAF1, RASA1, RASA2, RBFOX2, RBM10, RBM20, RIT1, RRAS, RYR2, SALL4, SASH1, SCN10A, SCN1B, SCN2B, SCN3B, SCN4B, SCN5A, SCO2, SEMA3D, SEMA3E, SGCD, SHOC2, SKI, SLC22A5, SLC25A20, SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC2A10, SLC39A13, SMAD3, SMAD4, SMAD6, SMAD9, SMARCB1, SNTA1, SOS1, SOS2, SPRED1, STAMBP, TAB2, TAFAZZIN, TBX1, TBX20, TBX4, TBX5, TCAP, TECRL, TFAP2B, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TK2, TLL1, TMEM260, TMEM43, TMEM70, TNNC1, TNNI3, TNNT2, TPM1, TRDN, TRPM4, TSFM, TTN, TTR, VCL, ZEB2, ZFPM2, ZIC3, ZNF469
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