SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND

ANKRD11, BRD4, HDAC8, NIPBL, RAD21, SMC1A, SMC3

Scientific Background

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a malformation-retardation syndrome that typically presents with characteristic craniofacial dysmorphia, prenatal growth retardation, hypertrichosis, synophrys, reduction malformations of the upper extremities and intelligence impairment (average IQ: 53). In addition, heart defects and gastrointestinal disturbances are frequently found. In milder forms, which probably affect the majority of patients, the facial dysmorphia is milder than in the classic form; the cognitive impairment and limb defects are also less severe.

 

So far, pathogenic variants in 6 genes are known, whereby the largest proportion of variants are in the NIPBL gene (60%). In about 15-20% of patients with classic CdLS, NIPBL variants cannot be detected in peripheral lymphocytes because they are present in the mosaic in other tissues. In addition, variants are described in mosaic form in rare cases in the genes SMC3, RAD21 and SMC1A.

 

References

Kline et al. 2019, Am J Med Genet 179A:1080 / Kline et al. 2018, Nat Rev Genet 19:649 / Dangiolo et al. 2015, Am J Med Genet A167:3161/ Kaiser et al. 2014, Hum Mol Genet 23:2888 / Minor et al. 2014, Gene 537:279 / Kline et al. 2007, Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 145C:248/ Bhuiyan et al. 2006, J Med Genet 43:568

GENES

ANKRD11, BRD4, HDAC8, NIPBL, RAD21, SMC1A, SMC3

ASSOCIATED TESTS

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